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The Republic of Indonesia is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. It is an archipelago comprising approximately 17,500 islands. With a population of over 238 million people, it is the world’s fourth most populous country. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Philippines, Australia, Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Across its many islands, Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group are the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity and religious pluralism within a majority Muslim population. Indonesia’s national motto, “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika” (“Unity in Diversity” literally, “many, yet one”), articulates the diversity that shapes the country.
Lying along the equator, Indonesia has a tropical climate, with two distinct monsoonalwet and dry seasons. Average annual rainfall in the lowlands varies from 70–125 in. Humidity is generally high, averaging about 80%. Temperatures vary little throughout the year; the average daily temperature range of Jakarta is 26–30°C.
Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world’s second highest level of biodiversity. The country has extensive natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, tin, copper, and gold.
Jakarta, officially known as the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.Located on the northwest coast of Java, it is the country’s economic, cultural and political centre, and is the most populous city in Indonesia. Established in the fourth century, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies (when it was known as Batavia) and has continued as the capital of Indonesia since the country’s independence was declared.
Jakarta’s economy is based on financial services, trade, and manufacturing. Industries in Jakarta include electronics, automotive, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences manufacturing.As the gateway of Indonesia, Jakarta serves as the stop-over for foreign visitors on their way to Indonesia’s popular tourist destinations such as Bali and Yogyakarta.
Jakarta has a hot and humid climate. Despite being located relatively close to the equator, the city has distinct wet and dry seasons.The city is the seat of the ASEAN Secretariat. Jakarta is served by the Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport, and Tanjung Priok Harbour; it is connected by several intercity and commuter railways, and served by several bus lines running on reserved bus ways.