Moscow is the Capital of Russia and the country’s principal political, economic, financial, educational and transportation center. It is located on the banks of the Moskva River, in the Central Federal District, in the European part of Russia. Moscow is the largest city in Europe. Historically, it was the capital of the former Soviet Union and the Pre Imperial Russian State. At the center of the city is the Kremlin which houses the home of the President of Russia as well as many of the facilities for the National Government. The city’s population of 11 million constitutes about 7% of the total population of Russia.
Moscow is an ancient city with a hoary past. Very little is known about its early history, but the earliest known reference to the city dates back to the year 1147. It became the capital of an independent Principality in the year 1327, and by the year 1480, Moscow had grown and developed enough to become the Capital of an empire that is now the Russian federation.
Moscow has a hemiboreal climate with warm somewhat humid summers, long, cold winters and very brief spring and autumn seasons. Typical high temperatures in the warm months of July & August are around 22°C. In winter, the temperature drops to around – 12°C.
Moscow is the cultural capital of Russia. There are over 100 museums, ninety theatres for the performing arts and twenty five concert halls spread over the city. The Bolshoi Ballet and Opera Theatre merits special mention as being well recognized all over the world. One of the most notable art museums in Moscow is the Tretyakov Gallery, housing works of the classic Russian tradition.
The major industries in Moscow include the chemical, metallurgy, food, textile, furniture, software and machine building industries. Moscow is also the country’s leading center of Science and Education. The Russian Academy of Sciences is situated here, apart from other prestigious institutions such as the Kurchatov Institute, Russia’s leading research and development institution in the filed of nuclear energy, the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, the Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems and the Steklov Institute such as the Kurchatov Institute, Russia’s leading research and development institution in the field of nuclear energy, the Landau Institute for Theoretically physics, the Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems and the Steklov Institute of Mathematics.
There are 5 International and 3 Domestic Airports in Moscow, linking the city to all parts of the world. There are 9 Rail Terminals handling trains from different parts of Europe and Asia. The Moscow Metro, one of the world’s most beautiful, is also one of the world’s busiest, serving more than seven million passengers daily. Moscow is also extensively served by efficient Tram, Trolleybus and Bus networks.